is the function of the CMS and DRL electrodes. Ground, Reference
or what ?
replaces the "ground" electrodes which are used in conventional
systems with two separate electrodes:
Common Mode Sense (CMS) active electrode. (ideally placed in the center of the measuring electrodes)
Driven Right Leg (DRL) passive electrode. (ideally placed away from the measuring electrodes)
2 electrodes form a feedback loop, which drives the average potential
of the subject (the Common Mode voltage) as close as possible to
the ADC reference voltage in the AD-box (the ADC reference can be
considered as the amplifier "zero"), Click
here for a picture showing the BioSemi "Zero-ref" setup.
The CMS/DRL loop has extra functions, which are not easily realized
with a single standard Ground electrode:
of the feedback loop, the effective impedance of the DRL electrode
is decreased with a factor of 100 at 50 Hz. This results in a 40
dB extra CMRR at 50 Hz when compared with using normal Ground electrodes
with the same impedance.
|| The DRL electrode is the only current return path between the subject
and the AD-box. The return current is limited electronically at
50 uA. This protects the subject against excessive flow of currents
due to amplifier and/or electrode defects. In addition, the circuit
provides an indication (blue LED off) indicating whether such an
error condition has occurred
BioSemi systems, every electrode or combination of electrodes can
be the "reference"; the choice is made entirely in software.
When no reference is selected in software, the signals are displayed
with respect to the CMS electrode. This mode does not provide the
full CMRR, and should only be use as a quick check of the electrodes.
Only after a reference is selected, the full 80 dB CMRR is achieved.
|Usual EEG reference selections are:
electrode on top of the head. (Cz)
|| Average between electrodes on the two ears.
of all connected electrodes.
leads between adjacent electrodes..
|Usual ECG reference selections are:
Central Terminal (WCT), defined as the average between Left-Arm,
Right-Arm and Left-Leg electrodes
Where to place the CMS and DRL electrodes ?
In practice, the location of the CMS and DRL electrodes is not very critical.
When the CMS or DRL are placed at a not ideal location, than the amount of common mode present in the signal will be just a little bit higher.
The Ideal location of the CMS electrode is in the middle of the measuring electrodes.
The ideal location of the DRL is away from the measuring electrodes.
This will result in the best CMRR, resulting in the least possible amount of 50 Hz noise.
During a bucket test, you can experiment with moving the CMS and DRL electrodes inside the bucket. When moving the CMS and DRL to various locations, you will see that this will have an effect on the common mode, 50 Hz.
So, for example when measuring ECG with 8 TP FLAT electrodes on the chest.
- place the CMS in the middle of the FLAT electrodes.
- place the DRL somewhere on an arm or a leg.
The location of the CMS and DRL does also not influence the amplitude of the measuring electrodes.
This is because after referencing, the CMS signal is subtracted again.
ActiView always saves the signals 'raw', in your analysis software you should always select a reference (1 of the measuring electrodes)
The extra referencing step, will give you 40 dB extra CMRR (Common mode rejection ratio):
- Forum link: "General info on CMSDRL"
- Forum link: "Referencing and CMSDRL", "Referencing and CMSDRL"
Will the re-referencing have any impact on the amplitude of the EEG ?
signals on file are the voltages between each electrode and CMS. These
raw signals on file, still contain some CM signal (50 Hz, ADC reference
noise, etc.). This CM signal cancels after a further subtraction step. It
is important to realize that our front-end digitizes the EEG signal AND
the common mode. The common mode is rejected by subtracting digital data.
Thus, the signals are treated fully differential all the way, from electrode
to digital output. This is different form many other systems where the subtraction
step is made with analog circuitry before the ADC. One of the advantages
our method is that noise and drift on the (common) ADC reference voltage
can be eliminated too.
for example, that you want to use the signals with respect to Cz for your
further source estimation calculations. In that case. You simply subtract
the signal in the Cz channel from all other channels. This generates a new
array of data (with one channel less of course) that you can use for further
the CMS electrode is located near Cz (which it usually is) the extra subtraction
step in the example above (choosing Cz as a Reference) won't have much influence
on the EEG part of the signals. However it will decrease the CM interference
part of the signals.
the BDF file contains data like:
1 (Oz) = 110uV
Oz and Cz contain 50Hz Common Mode. In the BDF file there is no
2 (Cz) = 101uV
about the amount of CM. In this example we suppose it is 100uV)
this you can calculate the voltage between Oz and Cz:
- Cz = 110uV - 101uV = 9 uV of clean EEG signal (without 100 uV of 50 Hz
and other noise)
this example, the Cz and CMS are close together, and only 1 uV of EEG is
present between them. But, when the recording is made in a shielded room,
the amount of CM in the raw signals would be very small, and the extra subtraction
step wouldn't make much difference. However, in a normal situation with
some residual CM mode signal present, the subtraction in software is essential.
It would of course be possible to do referencing calculations online during
acquisition (which we actually do for the signals displayed on screen
during acquisition), and also stream the signals to BDF file in referenced
form. But we choose not to do this because you loose information (the
magnitude of the CM, and the offset value(s) of the reference electrode(s))
and flexibility (so long as CMS and DRL are OK, any problem electrode
can be dropped from the calculations afterwards)